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When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II epub

by Dean Kohlhoff


When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II epub

ISBN: 0295974036

ISBN13: 978-0295974033

Author: Dean Kohlhoff

Category: History

Subcategory: Americas

Language: English

Publisher: Univ of Washington Pr (July 1, 1995)

Pages: 234 pages

ePUB book: 1204 kb

FB2 book: 1786 kb

Rating: 4.4

Votes: 384

Other Formats: lit lrf rtf txt





A contribution to the history of Alaska, World War II, and relations of the US government with indigenous people. From the CWRIC report: The evacuation of the Aleuts was a reasonable precaution taken to ensure their safety.

A contribution to the history of Alaska, World War II, and relations of the US government with indigenous people. But there was a large failure of administration and planning which becomes evident when the central questions are addressed: Why did the military and civilian agencies responsible for Aleut welfare wait until Attu was actually captured before they evacuated the islands?

Dean Kohlhoff is the author of When the Wind Was a River (. 9 avg .

The numbers of Aleut dead in evacuation camps may be compared to the number of Nivkh men executed by the .

The numbers of Aleut dead in evacuation camps may be compared to the number of Nivkh men executed by the Soviet regime for alleged collaboration with the Japanese. But the Aleuts did not die from bullets; they died of malnutrition and illness. And, certainly, the deaths were not intended. Although the main thrust of the book is the story of the evacuation, Kohlhoff does not omit to discuss the case of the Attuans, nor does he forget the story of the evacuees' return: the joyous expectation on the part of the Aleuts when familiar landscapes were spied from aboard the vessels that were carrying them home, as well as the shock when.

When World War II threatened the Aleutian Islands, the indigenous Aleut people .

When World War II threatened the Aleutian Islands, the indigenous Aleut people were displaced from their homes - abruptly and without much explanation. Many died; all suffered. The confusion is documented in intricate detail by Dean Kohlhoff in his book "When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War I. If there were serious casualties among Aleut civilians, it would leave administrators open to criticism, of course, and it would be easier for the military to operate without a population of "wards" underfoot. But a mass civilian evacuation was a daunting logistical prospect and no one knew how far the war might spread.

World War II came to the North Pacific in June 1942. Alaska's Native people living on the Aleutian and Pribilof islands, the Aleuts, felt its impact as did no other American citizens in that region.

When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War I.

When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II. Article. J roy anthropol inst. This is a book about Russian colonial practice in Alaska, aka Russian America, from the time that it was visited by Russia's first round-the-world voyage to the time that it was sold to the United States. The setting of Russian America elicited unprecedented strategies and practices from the designers and implementers of the Russian Empire's colonial policies.

Dean Kohlhoff (1933-1997) was a professor of history at Valparaiso . His other publications include When the Wind Was a River, the story of the military evacuation of Aleut residents of Attu Island in World War II.

Dean Kohlhoff (1933-1997) was a professor of history at Valparaiso University in Indiana for 30 years. معلومات المراجع. Amchitka and the Bomb: Nuclear Testing in Alaska. University of Washington Press, 2011.

One of the books which details this - Dean Kohlhoff’s 1995 history When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II - is in the novel’s Resources for Further Study - how did the author miss this?

One of the books which details this - Dean Kohlhoff’s 1995 history When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II - is in the novel’s Resources for Further Study - how did the author miss this? O. id he just count on the rest of us not bothering to fact chec. The story eventually makes a similar error at the end of the book, as all the evacuees at all the evacuation camps are returned to their respective villages on the same - but this time unnamed - ship. But no: again, there was more than one ship, more than than one wave of homecomings.

Open Journal Systems. Dorothy Gardner Jones, Dean W. Kohlhoff. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

A contribution to the history of Alaska, World War II, and relations of the US government with indigenous people. Kohlhoff (history, Valparaiso U.) describes the Japanese capture of 42 Aleuts in June 1942, and their experience as prisoners of war; the resulting decision to evacuate the remaining 881 from the islands to camps in southeastern Alaska; the Aleuts' experience of removal, life in internment, and return to find their homes devastated by weather and warfare; the physical and emotional damage that lingered; and their fight for restitution that was won only in 1988. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.
This is a book every American Child who wants to know about the history of the US during World War II in Alaska should read. This is a disgraceful story of racism and white arrogance to care for German POW under the Geneva Conventions and let Alaskans in the Aleutian Island starve, die a miserable death and destroy their villages mostly to amuse soldiers stationed on their islands. Enough said for anyone interested in this history.
It’s fair to say that the history of the Unangan (Aleut) evacuation of World War II isn’t widely known, at least not outside Alaska, but there are some good resources both online and off. Most importantly: the 9-volume "The Relocation and Internment of the Aleuts During World War II" by Kirtland & Coffin (1981; available on CD through the Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association) and the 1982 report "Personal Justice Denied" of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) (available as a PDF online), which together helped the Unangan achieve redress for what they suffered during WWII. To those resources add this volume, "When the Wind Was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II" by historian Dean Kohloff.

On June 3 and 4, 1942, six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that resulted in the U.S. entry into World War II, the Japanese bombed U.S. naval and army installations at Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands. Then, on June 6–7, the Japanese invaded Kiska and Attu Islands, on the other end of the Aleutian Chain. (Though unknown to Americans until WWII ended, the Unangan villagers on Attu were captured and held as prisoners on the Japanese island of Hokkaido for the duration of the war.) American military commanders in Alaska subsequently ordered the evacuation of all Unangan (Aleuts) in the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands. The evacuation, involving 881 Unangan from nine villages, took place in three waves from June 12 to July 26, 1942.

In spite of of discussions among Alaska civilian and military authorities over the months following Pearl Harbor, the evacuation was poorly planned and coordinated. The evacuation of all military dependents from Alaska had already been ordered in the immediate aftermath of Pearl Harbor; by the end of January 1942, the Interior Department’s Division of Territories and Island Possessions (which administered the Territory of Alaska) had “concurred with an Army recommendation that ‘the activities of the Army and Navy connected with evacuation be coordinated with the activities of the Governor's office’” (CWRIC, 1982: 324). Coordination needed to involve Alaska officials of three divisions of the Interior Department with responsibility for policies affecting the Aleuts — the Division of Territories (including the office of Territory of Alaska Gov. Ernest Gruening); the Office of Indian Affairs (OIA), mainly responsible for education; and the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), which managed the highly profitable fur seal harvest in the Pribilof Islands, whose labor force came almost exclusively from the Aleut population of those islands — along with the Alaska Sector of the U.S. Navy’s Thirteenth Naval District, Task Force 8 of the Navy’s North Pacific Force, and the U.S. Army's Alaska Defense Command.

But, as CWRIC and Kohloff, among others, have documented: coordination failed.

From the CWRIC report: “The evacuation of the Aleuts was a reasonable precaution taken to ensure their safety. But there was a large failure of administration and planning which becomes evident when the central questions are addressed: Why did the military and civilian agencies responsible for Aleut welfare wait until Attu was actually captured before they evac­uated the islands? Why were evacuation and relocation policies not formulated by the government departments most knowledgeable about the danger of an enemy attack they expected? And why was the return of the Aleuts to their homes delayed long after the threat of Japanese aggression had passed?” (CWRIC, 1982: 318)

In the end, evacuation proceeded as an emergency reaction to Japanese military movements. As Kohloff writes, “it came in bursts, not as a comprehensive simultaneous move. The experience of each Aleut group varied” (p. 68). Evacuees sometimes had little more than an hour (or, in Atka village’s case, none at all) to gather possessions or secure their homes and property, and with neither evacuees nor the Army and Navy personnel who effected the evacuations having any idea where the evacuees would end up. Earlier plans, some even made in consultation with Aleut communities, were incomplete. In the contingencies of the moment, with U.S. Army and Navy ships already underway with Aleut evacuees aboard, the Interior Department’s OIA and FWS scrambled to find relocation sites. What they found were abandoned facilities in Southeast Alaska — old salmon canneries, an old mine, an old Civilian Conservation Corps camp — rundown facilities with poor sanitation, inadequate heating, bad pipes, and other problems. As documented in the CWRIC report:

"The Aleuts were relocated to abandoned facilities in southeastern Alaska and exposed to a bitter climate and epidemics of disease without adequate protection or medical care. They fell victim to an extraor­dinarily high death rate, losing many of the elders who sustained their culture. While the Aleuts were in southeastern Alaska, their homes in the Aleutians and Pribilofs were pillaged and ransacked by American military personnel." (CWRIC, 1982: 318)

— no provision having been made for the protection of Unangan (Aleut) property.

The bias of this book is historical fact, not sensationalistic outrage. Kohlhoff methodically follows the evidence of history, from the failures of bureaucratic laxness, wartime panic, neglect, and racism — the paternalistic variety, but also its nasty bigoted sibling — that landed the Unangan in broken-down, abandoned facilities, only to be largely abandoned there by their supposed caregivers for a good part of the war.

But this history isn’t just a story of victimhood and suffering. More importantly this is a story of resistance, resilience, and strength — Kohlhoff follows that too. It’s a strength of his history that we hear the voices of Unangan survivors of the wartime relocation, witnessing how they worked indefatigably during the war to care for themselves and their families in defiance of official paternalism and neglect. And, after the war, to fight for redress and sovereignty over their lives.

This is an important history, but it’s not the last word.

If you want to know more about the Unangan experience of WWII, see some of the important later volumes published by the National Park Service (again with the Google search):

* Attu Boy: A Young Alaskan's WWII Memoir by Nick Golodoff (2012) — the real life story of an Unangan boy who spent the war years as a captive in Japan (the version on Amazon is from University of Alaska Press; also available online free from National Park Service)

* “World War II Aleut Relocation Camps in Southeast Alaska” by Charles M. Mobley (2012)

* “Lost Villages of the Eastern Aleutians: Biorka, Kashega, Makushin” by Ray Hudson & Rachel Mason (2014) — three of the villages that existed before the war, to which their people weren’t allowed to return after the war

For a reasonable (but less scholarly) history that is easier to get hold of then this volume, see The Aleut Internments of World War II: Islanders Removed from Their Homes by Japan and the United States. Or try Aunt Phil's Trunk : Volume Four, an entertaining (and accurate) recounting of Alaska history from 1935 to 1960 with lots of historical photos, & includes chapters on the Unangan relocation, the wider war in the Aleutians, and the German POWs brought to Excursion Inlet in the latter half of 1945 to dismantle a secret defense installation. (Unangan men from several of the relocation camps were part of the labor force who built that installation in 1942–1943). Aleutian Sparrow by Karen Hesse is a beautiful historical novel in free verse about a teenage girl from the Unalaska Island village of Kashega, whose residents were evacuated to the old Civilian Conservation Corps at Ward Lake (near Ketchikan).

The Unangan people aren’t relics of history: they’re still here, as much as anyone reading these words. Don’t consign these Alaskans to stereotype: they live in the modern world. Do a Google search on Aleut, do a Google search on Unangan. See Unangan leader Ilarion Merculieff's book Wisdom Keeper: One Man's Journey to Honor the Untold History of the Unangan People.
My brother traveled to Alaska 13 times on a motorcycle to research information and numerious times to Washington, DC. (also on a motorcycle ) to gather data for this book. The Freedom of Information Act allowed him to gain access to files necessary to verify the stories he heard from the Alutes. Testimonial: I have been evacuated from, Cambodia, Vietnam,& Saudia Arabia. I can tell you that,It's no fun! All my evacuations are nearly identacial to what happened to the Alutes, only much,more severe!!
I would like to thank Dean for a book well written and an eye opener to read. Thanks to him my mom, a teenager in Unalaska at the time of the Aleut evacuation, was more able to understand what was happening to her and her family and why. I shared this book with my mom who couldn't put it down and read it over a two day period. She said its contents caused much anger, emotion and awareness. Mr. Fred Geeslin was a friend of mom and dads in Sitka while I was growing up. He has always been there for the natives. This book could not have been written by anyone close to the events in history. Great historical read.
My brother traveled to Alaska 13 times on a motorcycle to research information and numerious times to Washington, DC. (also on a motorcycle ) to gather data for this book. The Freedom of Information Act allowed him to gain access to files necessary to verify the stories he heard from the Alutes. Testimonial: I have been evacuated from, Cambodia, Vietnam,& Saudia Arabia. I can tell you that,It's no fun! All my evacuations are nearly identacial to what happened to the Alutes, only much,much severe!!